Brand name – Nizoral
, Xolegel, Extina, Kuric
Generic name – Ketoconazole
Ketoconazole is antifungal antibiotic. Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is used in treating infections due to fungus that may invade any body part including the mouth, esophagus, throat, bladder, lungs or skin. Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is sold as topical cream, anti dandruff shampoo and oral tablet. This antifungal medication is in same family of the drugs as itraconazole (Sporanox), fluconazole
(Monistat, Micatin). The growth of different types of fungi is prevented by Ketoconazole (Nizoral) by preventing membranes production which surrounds fungal cells. In June 1981 Ketoconazole (Nizoral) was approved by Food and Drug Association.
Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is available in 200 mg tablets, 1% and 2% in shampoo, 2% in cream, 2% gel and 2% foam. Different fungal infections like candidiasis of the mouth or skin, blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, histoplsamosis and others are treated by oral Ketoconazole (Nizoral). Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is also used in treating fungal infections which do not respond to griseofulvin. To treat ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, tinea versicolor and dandruff topical Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is used.
Before taking Ketoconazole (Nizoral) consult with your doctor if you have allergy of Ketoconazole. If you have medical history of liver problems, low testosterone levels, alcohol use, problems of decreased adrenal gland function (like adrenal insufficiency, low cortisol levels and Addison’s disease) and no or little stomach acid production consult with your doctor before taking Ketoconazole (Nizoral) treatment. Avoiding alcohol will decrease risk of rare reaction with it which may result in headache, flushing and nausea. In pregnancy this treatment is suggested to use only when needed. It can cause harm to baby if it is taken in first three months of pregnancy. Ketoconazole (Nizoral) passes in breast milk. Nursing mothers should consult with doctor before using Ketoconazole. With certain medications Ketoconazole (Nizoral) oral should not be used because serious drug interaction can occur. Ketoconazole (Nizoral) interacts with medicines like cisapride, amiodarone, pimozide, dofetilide, quinidine and marcolide antibiotics. These interactions can increase risk of certain condition which affects heart rhythm. If you are taking such medications tell your doctor before starting Ketoconazole (Nizoral) treatment.
Some products which can interact with Ketoconazole (Nizoral) include warfarin and lanthanum. Efavirenz, nevirapine, isoniazid, rifamycins, and St. John’s wort may affect removal of Ketoconazole (Nizoral) from body. If patient is taking a medication for decreasing amount of stomach acid like antacids, ulcer drugs and heart burn drug patient should take Ketoconazole (Nizoral) two hours before these medications. Ketoconazole treatment may slow down removal of other drugs from your body which may affect their work. Some examples are benezodiazepines, cyclosporine, ergot drugs, elperenone, and HIV protease inhibitors tacrolimus. Some serious side effects of Ketoconazole (Nizoral) may occur like fainting, dizziness, fast heart beat, unusual weakness, bleeding and easy bruising, severe depression, stomach pain, confusion, low fever, tingly or numbness feeling, clay colored stools, dark urine and loss of appetite. Some minor side effects of Ketoconazole may include vomiting, nausea, skin rash, mild itching, loss in sex interest or impotence, breast swelling and headache.