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14 Feb 2012 02:11 PM

Metronidazole – A nitroimidazole antibiotic drug


Metronidazole is nitroimidazole antibiotic drug which is particularly for the anaerobic bacteria and the protozoa. Metronidazole is antibiotic, antiprotazoal and amebicide. Metronidazole is marketed with trade name Flagyl by Pfizer in the U.S, with the same trade name Flagyl it is globally marketed by Sanofi Aventis. In Bangladesh and Pakistan it is available with brand name Nidagyl marketed and manufactured by Star Laboratories. In 1980 Metronidazole was developed. Anaerobic bacteria are living organisms which thrive in the environments in which little oxygen is there and cause the disease in pelvis (abscess of Fallopian tubes and the ovaries), abdomen (a bacterial peritonitis) and liver (the sliver abscess).
Ameba and giardia lambia are intestinal parasites which can cause diarrhea and abdominal pain in the infected individuals. Trichomonas is the vaginal parasite which causes the inflammation of the vagina. Metronidazole (Flagyl) selectively blocks the functions within bacterial cells and parasites resulting in the death. It is available in 250 mg and 500 mg tablets. Capsules are available in 375 mg. Metronidazole (Flagyl) cream is available in 0.75% and 1% and lotion in 0.75%. Metronidazole (Flagyl) gel is available in 0.75%.
Metronidazole (Flagyl) is used for treating parasitic infections including amebic liver abscess, a giardia infection of small intestine, bacterial vaginosis, amebic dysentery (it is infection of colon causing bloody diarrhea), the trichomonas vaginal infection and trichomonas carriers (both the sexual partners) not having symptoms of the infection. It is used in the combination with some other antibiotics to treat abscesses in liver, abdomen, brain and pelvis caused by the anaerobic bacteria or it is used alone. It is used for treating infection of colon caused by bacterium known as C. difficile. (Antibiotics which are commonly used may alter type of the bacteria which inhabit colon. A C. difficile is anaerobic bacterium which may infect colon when common antibiotics inhibit normal type’s bacteria in colon. This leads to the inflammation of colon with abdominal pain and severe diarrhea.)
Metronidazole (Flagyl) is used in the combination with some other medicines for treating Helicobacter pylori which causes intestinal or stomach ulcers. Metronidazole (Flagyl) topical gel is for treating the acne rosacea and vaginal gel is for treating the bacterial vaginosis. Metronidazole can be taken orally with food or without food. The liver is responsible for Metronidazole elimination from the body, patients having abnormal liver function and liver disease may need lower doses.
Avoid taking alcohol when you are taking treatment of Metronidazole (Flagyl) because alcohol and Metronidazole together may cause the severe nausea, cramps, flushing, headache and vomiting. Warfarin’s blood thinning effect can be increased by Metronidazole and can increase bleeding risk probably by reducing break down of the warfarin. Metronidazole (Flagyl) is not supposed to take in pregnancy because it can affect on fetus. Metronidazole (Flagyl) passes in breast milk. Nursing mothers should not use it as it can affect the new born. Nausea, loss of appetite, headaches, a metallic taste and rash are some minor effects of the Metronidazole (Flagyl). Major side effects of the Metronidazole are seizures, damage of the nerves which results in tingling and numbness of extremities, aseptic meningitis and encephalopathy.
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